1 & 2 Kings
- In Hebrew, it is called as Kings. The division was introduced in Greek Old Testament and then followed by Latin and English. In Latin, Samuel and Kings are emphasized first, second, third and fourth books of Kingdoms.
- Jewish tradition: Jeremiah
- Three resources mentioned: The book of the annals of Solomon (1 Ki.11:41); The book of the annals of the kings of Judah ( 1Ki.14:29); The book of the annals of the kings of Israel (1Ki.14:19)
- Probably at the end of exile or after the exile…. 538 BC
Kingship and Covenant: The welfare of the Israel and Judah and their kings depended on their submission to and reliance on God and his covenant.
1,2 Kings presents the reader with abundant chronological data. Not only is the length of the reign of each king given, but during the period of the divided kingdom the beginning of the reign of each king is synchronized with the year of the ruling king in the opposite kingdom. Often additional data, such as the age of the ruler at the time of his accession, are also provided.
First and Second Kings are written in the form of historical narrative—specifically, a record of monarchical succession. Yet the authors are as much theologians as historians. It is not their intention to provide every historical detail, and on occasion they direct readers who want more information to consult other sources. The authors’ main intention is to interpret the history of Israel along theological lines, showing what happens when political and spiritual leaders foolishly choose to worship false gods instead of wisely choosing to worship the one true God.
Division: 1 Kings
Downfall: 2 Kings
“But I will not take the whole kingdom out of Solomon’s hand; I have made him ruler all the days of his life for the sake of David my servant, whom I chose and who observed my commands and statutes. I will take the kingdom from his son’s hands and give you [Jeroboam] ten tribes” (1 Kings 11:34-35)
“So the LORD said, “I will remove Judah also from my presence as I removed Israel, and I will reject Jerusalem, the city I chose, and this temple, about which I said, ‘There shall my Name be’” (2 Kings 23:27)
1 Kings: Solomon relinquished his right to rule over a united kingdom by his disobedience (1–11), yet even after the nation divided God stayed loyal by providing kings in his dynasty so that One may once again rule a united kingdom (12–22).
2 Kings: Continued rejection to rule under God as a monarchy destroyed both Israel (1–17) and Judah (18–25), yet the Davidic line remained intact.
- Lord is the only true God
- Lord controls nature and nations
- Lord demands exclusive worship and hates false worship places and practices
- Lord is the law giver
- Lord is the promise giver
The Reign of King Solomon (1:1–11:43)
The Kingdom Is Divided (12:1–14:31)
Abijam and Asa (15:1–24)
From Nadab to Ahab (15:25–16:34)
Elijah and Ahab (17:1–22:40)
Jehoshaphat and Ahaziah (22:41–53)
2 Kings Outline
The Death of Ahaziah (1:1–18)
Elisha and Israel (2:1–10:36)
Jehoahaz and Jehoash (13:1–25)
Amaziah, Jeroboam II, and Azariah (14:1–15:7)
Israel’s Last Days (15:8–31)
Jotham and Ahaz (15:32–16:20)
The End of Israel (17:1–41)
Manasseh and Amon (21:1–26)
The End of Judah (23:31–25:30)
The test of a true servant of God is the ability to end well. Discerning people of God learn from the mistakes of their predecessors and do not repeat these sins themselves